Transition, Acquisition and Integration Costs
In connection with our acquisitions, we incur costs associated with the acquisitions and related integration activities, consisting primarily of consulting fees for advisory, conversion and integration services and related personnel costs. Also included in these expenses are costs related to employee termination benefits and other transition activities. These transition, acquisition and integration costs are included in other operating costs and general and administrative expenses.
We have granted share-based awards to certain employees and members of our board of directors and intend to continue to grant additional share-based awards in the future. Share-based compensation is included in general and administrative expense.
Intangible Amortization Expense
These expenses represent amortization of intangible assets acquired through business combinations and customer portfolio and related asset acquisitions as well as depreciation of acquired software.
Non-operating Income (Expense)
Non-operating income (expense) primarily consists of other income and expense items outside of the Company’s operating activities.
Income Tax Expense Adjustments
Our effective tax rate reported in our results of operations reflects the impact of our non-controlling interests not being taxed at the statutory corporate tax rate. For purposes of calculating the adjusted net income, income tax expense is adjusted accordingly to reflect an effective tax rate assuming conversion of Fifth Third’s non-controlling interests into shares of Class A common stock, including the income tax effect of the non-GAAP adjustments described above. The adjusted global effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2019 is approximately 20.1% and is expected to remain at approximately 20.1% for the remainder of 2019. The adjusted global effective tax rate was 19.7% for the three months ended March 31, 2018.
Other Tax Adjustments
In addition to the adjustment described above, income tax expense is also adjusted for the cash tax benefits resulting from certain tax attributes, primarily the amortization of tax intangible assets resulting from or acquired with our acquisitions, the tax basis step up associated with our separation from Fifth Third and the purchase or exchange of units of Worldpay Holding, net of payment obligations under tax receivable agreements (“TRAs”). The estimate of the cash tax benefits is based on the consistent and highly predictable realization of the underlying tax attributes.
The following table provides a schedule of the tax adjustments discussed above which are reflected in the adjusted net income table below (in millions):
Three Months Ended March 31,
TRA Tax Benefits(1)
Acquired Tax Benefits(2)
Adjusted Tax Benefits(3)
Represents the 15% benefit that we retain for the shared tax benefits related to the TRAs.
Represents the tax benefits wholly owned by us, acquired through acquisition or termination of TRAs in which we retain 100% of the benefit.
Represents the net cash tax benefit retained by us from the use of the tax attributes, as reflected in the Tax Adjustments.