The following table presents a summary of cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 (in millions).
Three Months Ended March 31,
Net cash provided by operating activities
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
Cash Flow from Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities was $166.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 as compared to $84.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018. The increase reflects net income compared to a net loss in the prior period and an adjustment to add back increased depreciation and amortization expense, partially offset by increased net cash outflow due to changes in working capital.
Cash Flow from Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $88.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 as compared to $1,406.1 million of cash provided by investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2018. The prior period includes cash acquired relating to the acquisition of Legacy Worldpay in January 2018.
Cash Flow from Financing Activities
Net cash used in financing activities was $422.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 as compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $75.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018. Cash used in financing activities during the three months ended March 31, 2019 consisted primarily of the repayment of debt and finance leases, payments relating to tax receivable agreements, partially offset by incremental borrowings. Cash provided by financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2018 consisted primarily of proceeds from issuance of additional debt, partially offset by the repayment of debt and finance leases, settlement and payments under tax receivable agreements and addendums and distributions to non-controlling interests.
At March 31, 2019, we have $7.5 billion of outstanding debt, which includes $246 million of outstanding borrowings under our revolving credit facility. See additional discussion in Note 6 - Long-Term Debt in “Item 1 - Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements.”
We are required to maintain a leverage ratio no greater than established thresholds (based upon the ratio of total funded debt to consolidated EBITDA, as defined in the loan agreement) and a minimum interest coverage ratio (based upon the ratio of consolidated EBITDA to interest expense), which are tested quarterly based on the last four fiscal quarters. The required financial ratios become more restrictive over time, with the specific ratios required by period set forth in the table below:
(must not exceed)
December 31, 2018 to September 30, 2019
5.75 to 1.00
4.00 to 1.00
December 31, 2019 to September 30, 2020
5.00 to 1.00
4.00 to 1.00
December 31, 2020 and thereafter
4.25 to 1.00
4.00 to 1.00
As of March 31, 2019, we were in compliance with these covenants with a leverage ratio of 3.77 to 1.00 and an interest coverage ratio of 6.69 to 1.00.