NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)
The Company capitalizes certain costs related to computer software developed for internal use
and amortizes such costs on a straight-line basis over an estimated useful life. Research and development costs incurred prior to establishing technological feasibility are charged to operations as such costs are incurred. Once technological
feasibility has been established, costs are capitalized until the software is placed in service. See Note 4Property, Equipment and Software for additional information.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
accordance with ASC 350, IntangiblesGoodwill and Other, the Company tests goodwill for impairment for each reporting unit on an annual basis, or when events occur or circumstances indicate the fair value of a reporting unit is
below its carrying value. If the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, an impairment loss is recorded to the extent that implied fair value of the goodwill within the reporting unit is less than its carrying value. The
Company performed its most recent annual goodwill impairment test for all reporting units as of July 31, 2018 using market data and discounted cash flow analyses. Based on this analysis, it was determined that the fair value of all reporting
units was substantially in excess of the carrying value. There have been no other events or changes in circumstances subsequent to the testing date that would indicate impairment of these reporting units as of December 31, 2018.
Intangible assets consist of acquired customer relationships, trade names, customer portfolios and related assets that are amortized over
their estimated useful lives. The Company reviews finite lived intangible assets for possible impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that carrying amounts may not be recoverable. As of December 31, 2018, there have been
no such events or circumstances that would indicate potential impairment of finite lived intangible assets.
Settlement Processing Assets and
Obligations and Merchant Float
Settlement assets and obligations and merchant float represent intermediary balances arising from
the settlement process which involves the transferring of funds between card issuers, merchants and Sponsoring Members. Funds are processed under two models, a sponsorship model and a direct member model. In the United States the Company operates
under the sponsorship model and outside the United States the Company operates under the direct membership model.
Under the sponsorship
model, in order for the Company to provide electronic payment processing services, Visa, MasterCard and other payment networks require sponsorship by a member clearing bank. The Company has an agreement with various banks and financial institutions,
(the Sponsoring Member) to provide sponsorship services to the Company. Under the sponsorship agreements the Company is registered as a Visa Third-Party Agent and a MasterCard Service Provider. The sponsorship services allow us to route
transactions under the Sponsoring Members membership to clear card transactions through MasterCard, Visa and other networks. Under this model, the standards of the payment networks restrict us from performing funds settlement and as such
require that these funds be in the possession of the Sponsoring Member until the merchant is funded. Accordingly, settlement assets and obligations resulting from the submission of settlement files to the network or cash received from the network in
advance of funding the network are the responsibility of the Sponsoring Member and are not recorded on the Companys Consolidated Statements of Financial Position.
In the United States, settlement assets and obligations are recorded by the Company related to the Issuer Solutions business when funds are
transferred from the Company to the Sponsoring Member for settlement prior to receiving funds from the financial institution customer or funds are received from the financial institution customer prior to transferring funds to the Sponsoring Member
for settlement. These timing differences result in a settlement asset or obligation. The amounts are generally collected or paid the following business day.
Settlement assets and obligations are also recorded in the United States as result of intermediary balances due to/from the Sponsoring Member.
The Company receives funds from certain networks which are owed to the Sponsoring Member for settlement. In other cases the Company transfers funds to the Sponsoring Member for settlement in advance of receiving funds from the network. These timing
differences result in a settlement asset or obligation. The amounts are generally collected or paid the following business day. Additionally, U.S. settlement assets and obligations arise related to interchange expenses, merchant reserves and
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